Term Definition
Proximity We group nearby figures together
Ex. AA AA AA = 3 Groups
Similarity Figures similar to each other, we group together
Ex. AAaa = 2 Groups Ex. Red 5 in Green Background
Closure Tendency to perceive incomplete figures as whole and complete.
Continuity Objects that continue a pattern are grouped together. Ex. the rectangle line-pattern mixed with the zig-zag line-pattern
Order light passes through the eye Light passes through: 1.Cornea 2.Pupil 3.Lens 4.Retina
Transduction Converting an environmental stimulus into a neural signal.
Frequency -The number of cycles per second in a wave.
-Determines pitch of sound.
Place Theory Accounts for greater degree of auditory perception. Differences in sound frequency activate different regions on the basilar membrane.
Technical term for the Ear Drum Tempanic Membrane
Physical structures related to smell and memory -Olfactory Bulb -Amygdala -Hippocampus
Describe in-class flag test Opponent Process Theory – The activation of one cone (at retinal level) inhibits another cone. red-green, yellow-blue, black-white
Physical Structure in touch -Free Nerver Endings -Meissner’s corpuscles -Merkel’s discs -Pacinian corpuscles -Ruffini's end-organs
Percentage of people afflicted with insomnia? 43%
How long does an LSD trip last? 6-8 hours
Tonotopic map area of the brain that allows you to recognize familiar sounds.
Stages of Sleep Stage1-Theta Waves Stage2-Spindles Stage3-Delta Waves appear Stage4-More Delta Waves Stage5-REM (Dreaming)
Hypnosis Trancelike state of heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and intense focus
What structures of the Thalamic Nuclei is involved in consciouss awareness? Intralaminar nuclei and midline nuclei
Adaptive Theory of Sleep Humans can conserve energy while it is dark and they can’t hunt for food. Also, prevents humans from getting harmed at night
Restorative Sleep Theory Sleep allows the brain and body to restore certain depleted chemical resources, while eliminating wastes that have accumulated. releases growth hormones
Unconditioned Stimulus A stimulus that naturally produces a response
Ex. Dog Food
Unconditioned Response The natural physical response to the stimulus
Ex. Salivating to dog food
Conditioned Stimulus The stimulus that is originally neutral but after pairings with an unconditioned stimulus becomes meaningful
Ex. Ring Tone
Conditioned Response The learned physical response to a previously neutral stimulus
Ex. Salivating to the Ring Tone
Learning Gender Differences Boys—mental rotation tasks and math learning
Girls—verbal learning tasks
Primary Reinforcers Stimulus reinforces behavior without experience or training. Ex.Food, Water, Warmth
Secondary Reinforcers Stimulus reinforces behavior because it helps to attain a primary reinforcer.
Ex.Working gets money which = food
Discrimination vs. Generalization Ex. of Pavlov Dog – Descrimination-if the dog didn't salivate at a similar ring tone, but only at the specific bell. Generalization-the dog salivating at anything similar to the ring tone.
Donald Hebb “Cells that fire together, wire together”
Learned Helplessness Through conditioning, people learn that they cannot control their environment and fail to do so even when they are able
Ex.Women who continue to stay in abusive relationships
Insight Learning Sudden awareness to problem solution. Aha moment.
Technical Term of grouping info to remember? Chunking
What stage is working memory? 2nd Stage
Method of Loci Memory device using mental images to recall a list in specific order.
Motivated Forgetting Blocking out painful memories.
Why people remember different things of an event? not able to ENCODE the information fast enough to be able to store it into long-term memory.

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